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Catalog / Pharmaceutical Technology / Classification of soft dosage forms

Classification of soft dosage forms

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  • Creams Production
  • Ointment Production
  • Classification of soft dosage forms
  • Manufacture of cosmetic creams
  • Creams Production
  • Ointment Production
  • Classification of soft dosage forms
  • Manufacture of cosmetic creams

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Catalog / Pharmaceutical Technology / Classification of soft dosage forms

Classification of soft dosage forms

Based on the foregoing, the following classification of soft dosage forms is proposed:

1. Ointments according to the type of base are divided into three groups: hydrophobic (lipophilic), hydrophobic absorption (emulsion) and hydrophilic ointments.
Hydrophobic (lipophilic) ointments are prepared mainly on hydrocarbon bases (petrolatum, petrolatum, paraffin) and may contain other lipophilic auxiliary substances (vegetable oils, animal fats, waxes, synthetic glycerides and liquid polyalkylsiloxanes). Only insignificant amounts of water or aqueous solutions can be introduced into their composition. Hydrophobic ointments, when used, have an occlusal (preventing contact with air) effect, have a softening effect, are difficult to wash off with water and do not mix with exudate. Hydrophobic absorption ointments. Absorption ointments are hydrophobic, but when rubbed into the skin, they can absorb (emulsify) exudate. The basics for them can be divided into two groups:
hydrophobic bases consisting of hydrocarbons and emulsifiers of the water-oil type (petrolatum and lanolin or wool wax alcohols), which can contain significant amounts of water or aqueous solutions to form a water-oil emulsion;
hydrophobic bases, which are emulsions of the type water-oil or oil-water-oil (petroleum jelly and water lanolin). In their composition by emulsification can additionally be introduced water or an aqueous solution. Hydrophilic ointments, as a rule, are hyperosmolar, as a result of which, when used, they can absorb a significant amount of exudate. The bases for them can be divided into two groups: water-soluble bases, which, as a rule, contain hydrophilic non-aqueous solvents (polyethylene glycol 400, propylene glycol, etc.) and sufficiently large concentrations of water-soluble polymers (polyethylene glycol 1500, proxanol 268, etc.); water-washable bases, which, in addition to water-soluble polymers and hydrophilic non-aqueous solvents, contain lipophilic substances (higher fatty alcohols, petroleum jelly, paraffin oil, lanolin, waxes, etc.). These bases are typically oil-water emulsions and require the presence of an oil-water emulsifier.

2. Creams are divided into hydrophobic (fatty) and hydrophilic (emulsion) in composition. Hydrophobic creams are prepared on the basis of a water-oil or oil-water-oil emulsion stabilized with suitable emulsifiers.

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  • Updated: 08/10/2019
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The sticks are inserted into the urethra and other canals (cervix, ear canal, fistulous and wound passages). They have the shape of a cylinder with a pointed end and a diameter of not more than 1 cm. The mass of the stick should be from 0.5 to 1 g.
7. Soft gelatin capsules are intended for liquid and paste-like medicinal substances and have a solid shell. They are spherical, ovoid, oblong or cylindrical in shape with hemispherical ends. Three types of soft gelatin capsules are distinguished from each other by the relative hardness of the shell: soft (Capsulae gelatinosae molles), semi-soft (Perlac gelatinosae) and semi-hard (Capsulae gelatinosae durae elasticae). 8. Adhesive plasters can be solid or liquid. By degree of dispersion, the masses of the patches can be alloys, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, or combined systems. According to the composition of the plaster masses, the patches are divided into resin-wax, rubber, lead and liquid. Depending on the medical purpose and the depth of the therapeutic effect, the patches are epidermal, endermatic, and diathermic. In most cases, epidermal patches do not contain medicinal substances and are used mainly as a dressing, for fixing dressings on the skin surface, converging wound edges, masking skin defects, protecting it from various damaging environmental factors. In the process of applying this patch, transpiration (evaporation through the skin), gas, moisture and heat transfer are stopped, as a result of which the skin softens, regional blood circulation increases, and the processes of resorption of various infiltrates are improved. These patches should be sufficiently sticky, stick tightly to the skin and not irritate it. Endermic patches necessarily contain medicinal substances of various therapeutic effects, for example, keratolytic, depilatory, etc. They are used to treat skin diseases at the site of application of the patch. Diadermic patches contain medicinal substances that penetrate the skin and have a general therapeutic effect or affect subdermal tissues. Endermatically and diadermic patches are softer in consistency than epidermal patches, and should provide the necessary effect of drugs, facilitating their penetration to a certain predetermined depth.

Specifications

In hydrophobic creams, a fat base (lanolin, petroleum jelly, stearin) is used, to which various active therapeutic substances are added, such as vegetable oils, vitamins, hormones, fish oil, and in some cases various aromatic substances or essential oils. The quality of the cream is not determined by its aroma. In some cases, aromas are added to creams to suppress the odor of the fat base.
Hydrophilic creams are prepared on the basis of an oil-water or water-oil-water emulsion stabilized with suitable emulsifiers. They also include colloidal dispersed systems, consisting of higher fatty alcohols or acids dispersed in water or mixed in water-glycol solvents, stabilized by hydrophilic surfactants.

3. Gels according to the type of dispersed systems are divided into hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Hydrophobic gels (oleogels) are prepared on the basis of a hydrophobic solvent (liquid paraffin or vegetable oil, etc.) and a lipophilic gelling agent (polyethylene, colloidal silicon dioxide, aluminum or zinc soap, etc.). Hydrophilic gels (hydrogels) are prepared on the basis of water, a hydrophilic mixed or non-aqueous solvent (glycerin, propylene glycol, ethanol) and a hydrophilic gelling agent (carbomers, cellulose derivatives).

4. Pastes are a mixture of fats or fat-like compounds and various powdered substances. The basis of the paste can be lanolin, petroleum jelly, glycerin, linseed, olive and other vegetable oils, and most often ‘most of all - their mixtures with each other. If the medicinal substances that make up the paste are less than 25%, then the missing amount is supplemented with indifferent powders such as starch, talc or zinc oxide. Pastes are mainly used to treat affected wet skin areas as an anti-inflammatory drying agent, as well as in dentistry.
5. Liniment are liquid ointments. According to the nature of the dispersed medium, they are divided into the following groups: fatty liniment, which as a dispersed medium contains fatty oils or fat-like substances (lanolin). The most commonly used are sunflower and linseed oil; alcohol liniments that contain alcohol or tinctures (most often tincture of capsicum), as well as various medicinal substances; vasolemic compounds, which are characterized by the presence of liquid paraffin. Due to the high chemical inertness of paraffin oil, vasolements exhibit high storage stability; soap-alcohol liniment (saponyment), they contain alcohol solutions of soap as a dispersion medium.

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The co-identifiers can be liquid (if they contain potassium soap) or dense gel-like (if they contain sodium soap); liniment solutions are transparent mixtures of fatty oils with essential oils, chloroform, methyl salicylate, ether, turpentine, which include various solid medicinal substances soluble in prescribed solvents, such as camphor, menthol, anestezine, etc .; liniment suspensions are two-phase systems, which are suspensions of powdered substances insoluble in the prescribed liquids. Most often, these liniments include zinc oxide, talc, xeroform, calcium carbonate, starch, and sulfa drugs. As a dispersion medium, glycerin, fatty oils, alcohol, water, etc. are used. A classic example of a suspension liniment is the Vishnevsky liniment; liniment emulsions are two-phase systems, which can be a water-oil or oil-water emulsion. They consist of a mixture of fatty oils, with alkalis or contain soap solutions. The advantages of liniments include their high biological activity, ease of application to the skin and quick absorption. The disadvantages of liquid ointments are the low stability of some of them and the inconvenience of transportation.
6. Suppositories are general and local action. Suppositories of general action are designed for rapid absorption of active substances in the blood. Suppositories of local action are used mainly for the purpose of "local exposure of a medicinal substance to a particular inflammatory process, to relieve pain, etc.
At the place of use, suppositories are divided into three groups: rectal (suppositories) - Suppositoria rectalia, vaginal - Suppositoria vaginalia and sticks - Bacilli.
Rectal suppositories are introduced into the rectum and are considered mainly as a dosage form of general action. They are prescribed for violation of cardiovascular activity, neuropsychiatric disorders, etc. The use in such cases is explained by the speed of exposure to drugs prescribed in the form of suppositories.
They can be in the form of a cone, a cylinder with a pointed end or another shape with a maximum diameter of 1.5 cm. The mass of one suppository should be in the range from 1 to 4 g. Vaginal suppositories are inserted into the vagina and are used for local action. They can be spherical (balls) - globuli, ovoid (ovules) - ovula or in the form of a flat body with a rounded end (pessaries) - pessaria. The mass of suppositories should be in the range from 1.5 to 6 g.

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