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Catalog / Pharmaceutical Technology / Microencapsulation of drugs / Manufacturing Encapsulation Technologies

Manufacturing Encapsulation Technologies

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  • Microcapsules with oil
  • Capsulation technology
  • Microcapsule
  • Substance encapsulation
  • Microcapsules with oil
  • Capsulation technology
  • Microcapsule
  • Substance encapsulation

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Catalog / Pharmaceutical Technology / Microencapsulation of drugs / Manufacturing Encapsulation Technologies

Manufacturing Encapsulation Technologies

A modern manufacturer of drugs is constantly developing technologies for producing multicomponent drugs with certain properties,
mastering new technologies, the main task of which is to ensure the safety and increase the effectiveness of drugs. One of the most promising methods for controlling the properties of drugs is encapsulation in the shell. It is worth emphasizing that encapsulation technologies have a rich history and are widely used not only in the chemical-pharmaceutical industry, but also in the chemical, food industry, agriculture and other industries. In this chapter, the reader can find an overview of encapsulation technologies, some of which can be used to obtain solid, dosage forms, and others - in the production of soft, liquid and gaseous.
Encapsulation (from Lat. Capsula - box) - the conclusion of small particles of a solid body, their aggregates (granules) or liquid droplets into a thin enough strong shell or into a matrix with various specified properties - permeability, melting point, ability to dissolve or not dissolve in various environments and others. In the pharmaceutical industry, there are processes of encapsulation in large gelatin capsules (0.5-1.5 cm) and microencapsulation processes, which allow you to get capsules 10-1-10-4 cm in size. Encapsulation drug idents substances is carried out with purposes: prevention of unstable medicines from exposure to harmful environmental factors (vitamins, antibiotics, enzymes, vaccines, sera, and others.); masking the taste of bitter and sickening medicinal substances; ensure the release of drugs in a certain section of the gastrointestinal tract (enteric microcapsules); ensuring the prolonged action of the drug, namely, maintaining a certain level of the active component in the body and its effective therapeutic effect for a long time due to the slow release of small doses of the active component; combination of medicinal substances incompatible with each other in a single drug (the use of release coatings); transferring liquids and gases to a pseudo-solid state, i.e. in a loose mass consisting of hard-coated microcapsules filled with liquid or gaseous medicinal substances; facilitate swallowing; post-processing improvements, especially in high-speed packaging lines.

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  • Updated: 08/10/2019
  • Pharmaceutical equipment in stock and on order
  • Warranty: 1 year on encapsulation technology equipment

Model: Encapsulation Technologies

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One of the most important factors is the purpose of the product, which determine the conditions under which the encapsulated substance is used and its properties are manifested. The choice of film-forming material and the resulting choice of microencapsulation medium depend on this. Slowing the release of a substance by diffusion requires the use of a film-forming material, which does not dissolve, but swells in the medium in which microcapsules are used. On the other hand, rapid release can be provided by the selection of soluble, melting or brittle film-forming material. The next factor is the stability and solubility of the encapsulated substance under microencapsulation. The instability of many substances even with a slight increase in temperature (enzymes, some vitamins, volatile liquids) limits the possibility of applying methods involving heating. An alternative in this case may be methods based on separation of liquid phases (methods of forming a new phase from solutions). The properties of the substance will determine the choice of the dispersion medium and the dispersed phase. Of great importance is the cost of the process, so preference is given to methods involving fewer stages and carried out in continuous mode. The important factors are also the required size of the microcapsules, the content of the encapsulated substance in them and the microcapsulation efficiency. The above classification of microencapsulation methods, which is based on the nature of the processes that occur during microencapsulation, is rather arbitrary. In practice, a combination of different methods is often used. Next, microencapsulation methods most commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry will be considered.

Specifications

The main component of microcapsules - the encapsulated substance - can be in any state of aggregation - liquid, solid, gaseous. Existing methods provide the possibility of microencapsulation of both lyophilic and lyophobic substances. The contents of the microcapsules may include an inert filler, which is the medium in which the substance was dispersed during microencapsulation, or necessary for the subsequent functioning of the active substance. The content of the encapsulated substance in microcapsules is usually 50-95% by weight of the capsules. This value can vary depending on the technology and production conditions, the required ratio of the material of the shells and the encapsulated substance, as well as on other process parameters: temperature, degree of dispersion, viscosity of the medium, the presence of surfactants, etc. The term "microcapsules" or "nanocapsules" can be understood as many different structures. You can use molecules within which the active substance is retained, as well as complexes of complex molecules from which nanocapsules or nanospheres are formed. Nano-encapsulation is said to be when the size of the molecules is less than a few micrometers. When the size of the molecules is less than one millimeter, they talk about microencapsulation. Various classes of substances can be used as the material of the shells or encapsulating matrix: Waxes and lipids: beeswax, candelilla and carnuba waxes, wax emulsions, glycerol distearate, natural and modified fats. Proteins: gelatin, wheat proteins, soy proteins, zein, gluten, etc. Use both the proteins themselves and their modifications. Carbohydrates: starches, maltodextrins, chitosan, sucrose, glucose, ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate, alginates, etc.

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Degradable polymers: polypropylene, polyvinyl acetate, polystyrene, polybutadiene, etc. The choice of shell material or encapsulating matrix depends on the purpose, properties and method of release of the encapsulating substance, as well as on the selected microencapsulation method. The contents of microcapsules can be released by mechanical destruction of the shells under pressure, during friction, ultrasonic exposure, melting, tearing from the inside by vapors or gaseous substances released when external conditions change, when the shell material interacts with the medium when dissolved in it, as well as as a result of diffusion of the contents when the walls of the capsules swell in the surrounding fluid. Existing microencapsulation methods can be roughly divided into three main groups: Physical microencapsulation methods are based on methods of forming shells using mechanical techniques. This group of methods includes coating in a fluidized bed, extrusion using centrifuges or through forming devices such as "pipe in pipe", vapor condensation (vacuum spraying). Chemical methods are based on chemical transformations leading to the production of a film-forming material, namely, the formation of a new phase by crosslinking of polymers, polycondensation and polymerization. High molecular substances (oligomers or polymers) as well as low molecular weight substances can undergo chemical transformations.
Physicochemical methods - coacervation, deposition of a film-forming polymer from an aqueous medium by adding a component that reduces its solubility, the formation of a new phase with temperature, evaporation of a volatile solvent, solidification of melts in liquid media, extraction substitution, spray drying, physical adsorption. When choosing a microencapsulation method, several key factors must be considered.

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