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Homogenization of ointments and creams

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Homogenization of ointments and creams

The next stage of ointment production is homogenization. This is a specific stage, as mixing does not always achieve the desired degree of dispersibility of the drug substances. Various equipment is used for homogenization, such as roller or disk maseterks, millstones and colloid mills, as well as homogenizer-dispersersers.
Roller masheters have two or three smooth-surfaced rollers that rotate toward each other at different speeds, allowing the ointment to pass from roller to roller and increasing the friction between them. The rollers are made of porcelain, basalt or metal. To maintain the optimal temperature of the ointment entering the rolls, they are made hollow, so that if necessary, it is possible to supply water inside.
Mazeterka is a system of three contiguous rollers, the axes of which lie in the same plane. The two outermost rolls are pressed against the middle roll by springs. The gap between the middle and outer rollers is adjustable. Ointments and pastes are rubbed in the contact zone of the rollers. The kneaded ointment is scraped off the roll with a scraper mounted on the body of the maseter. The grinding process proceeds in three stages: solid particles or lumps are crushed or crushed in the gaps between rolls I and II; the grinding action is further enhanced by the grinding action of rolls II and III due to the higher speed of rotation; the rubbing action is enhanced by additional oscillating movements of roll III along its axis. It is very important that the rolls stand at an appropriate distance from each other and that the clearances between rolls I and II as well as between rolls II and III are in the correct ratio. To change the clearances, the bearings of rolls I and III are moved by means of adjusting screws. Mazeterka also has a safety device that automatically stops it when foreign objects get into the gaps between the rolls. The productivity of the three-roll mazeterka is about 50 kg of ointment per hour. Cereal mill is two millstones, where the upper one is cast together with the feed hopper and is stationary, and the lower millstone rotates horizontally. The ointment is homogenized in the gap between the millstones and pressed out to the edges, where it is collected in a receiver by means of a scraper. The degree of dispersibility is determined by the distance between the millstones. The capacity of the mill is 60-80 kg/h. For the preparation of emulsions and suspensions containing insoluble solids, colloid mills of different designs are used. In modern colloid mills, grinding takes place in a liquid medium by impact or rubbing. The ratio of solid and liquid phases varies from 1:2 to 1:6 depending on the properties of the solid material to be ground. Colloidal grinding is a complex and poorly studied process. Designs of colloidal mills with industrial applications are few. Of most interest to the pharmaceutical industry are beater and vibrocavitation colloid mills.

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  • Information updated : 07 / 07 / 2024
  • In stock
  • Manufacturer : 1 year for Homogenization of ointments and creams

Model: Homogenization of ointments and creams

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Blades on the rotor make it possible to significantly improve the pressure and flow characteristics of the RPA, increase the efficiency of flow treatment in the inner zone and create additional treatment stages. Increasing the efficiency of the RPA can also be achieved by installing additional working bodies in the working space, which are not rigidly connected with the main bodies. In this case, dispersing and other additional bodies are used, providing an increase in dispersing efficiency and the degree of flow turbulization. The presence of inert bodies – balls, beads, rings, etc., leads to additional intensification of pulverization processes. – leads to additional intensification of grinding processes. Dispersing efficiency in PPAs significantly increases with increasing concentration of suspension, as at that grinding occurs not only due to PPAs, but also due to intensive mechanical friction of dispersed phase particles with each other. The main elements of the RPA design are: housing, shaft, screw, impeller, small stator cylinder, large stator cylinder, small rotor cylinder, large rotor cylinder, outlet pipe, drive cup, loading cup, receiving pipe, electric motor, coupling and frame. The principle of operation of the RPA is as follows: after preparation of the components of the mixture, they are fed into the receiving spigot of the loading cup. Then the components are mixed and injected by means of a screw to the impeller, from which the mixture is thrown to the rotor and stator segments. When passing through the gaps between the rotor and stator segments, active homogenization of the ointment takes place due to the breaking of the continuity of the medium and the resulting pulsations in their grooves. Having passed through the grooves, the ready mixture is ejected into the outlet pipe and further on through the pipeline is fed to the packing. It is possible to regulate the rotor speed, which is provided by an electric drive consisting of an electric motor and a frequency-pulse converter. The use of RPA allows to exclude both preliminary grinding of powdery components and subsequent homogenization of ointment on masers, while providing a higher degree of dispersibility of suspension ointments.
However, it should be noted that in the preparation of ointments using drugs that are crystalline substances with a very strong crystal lattice (boric acid, streptocide, some antibiotics, etc.), the use of RPA does not exclude the preliminary fine grinding of drugs. But in all cases preparation of ointments with the help of RPA leads to significant savings in time and energy, as well as to reduced losses of components compared to traditional methods of ointment preparation.

Pharmaceutical Glossary

Articles  — A genre of journalism in which the author sets the task of analyzing social situations, processes, phenomena, primarily from the point of view of the regularities underlying them.
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Technical specifications

Rotor-beater colloid mill. The slurry to be ground is fed through a connection into the housing, where it passes between the beaters, which are mounted on the rotor rotating on the shaft, and counterpunches fixed stationary in the housing. Rows of rotor beats are located between the rows of counterpunches of the housing. The shredded material exits the nozzle. If the degree of comminution is insufficient, the slurry is passed through the mill a second time. The grinding housing can be cooled. The liquid intended for this purpose enters through the connection and exits through the connection.
Due to the high velocity of beads and particles of the mixture and their collision with counterparts, a significant cavitation effect develops in the mill (when bubbles formed in the liquid burst, emitting a shock wave and causing intense micro-flows of liquid).
For this reason, these mills are sometimes called cavitation pulverizers. They can also be used to produce and homogenize emulsions. The capacity of such a mill with a rotor diameter of 200 or 800 mm and a rotational speed of 3000 to 12,000 rpm is up to 100 kg of slurry per hour. Vibrocavitation colloid mill. The mill consists of a stator and rotor which are housed in a casing. There are longitudinal grooves on the surface of the stator and rotor. The slurry enters the annular gap between the stator and the rotor through a connector and exits through the connector.
When the rotor rotates on the shaft at a speed of 18,000 rpm, the slurry particles moving from the rotor grooves to the stator grooves make vibrations of high frequency, close to ultrasonic, and are crushed to a size of 1 micron. The mill can be cooled, for this purpose the cooling liquid is passed through the connections. The capacity of a vibrocavitation colloid mill with a rotor diameter of 500 mm is 500 to 700 kg of suspension per hour. For homogenization of ointments are also used special apparatuses – homogenizers, which have different devices. In homogenizers of one type of homogenizer coarse disperse emulsion under high pressure is forced through narrow channels and slits. In homogenizers of another type, the emulsion under the influence of centrifugal force arising from the rotation of the disk is forced through the slits in the disk, atomizing into a mist. The emulsion is fed through a hollow axis.
The principle of operation of homogenizer-dispersersers is to squeeze the product through narrow slits. The essence of homogenization is the use of pressure on liquids to divide the inclusions they contain into very small particles and create a constant dispersion for further processing of the product. There are many different types of homogenizers.
Rotary pulsation apparatuses (RPA) allow to significantly intensify the processes occurring in the preparation of such dispersed systems as emulsion, suspension and combined ointments.

Additional information

RPAs are designed for preparation of highly dispersed, homogenized liquid emulsions and suspensions, as well as multicomponent compositions from hard-to-mix liquids with the temperature of the processed medium up to 95 °С. They combine the principles of centrifugal pump, disembrator, disintegrator and colloid mill. By means of pulsation, shock and other hydrodynamic effects occurring in RPAs, physical and mechanical properties of the produced products are changed and energy consumption of production is reduced due to intensification of technological processes. There are many foreign and domestic designs of various types of RPAs. The most widely used are submersible and flow-through (flow-through) type PPAs. Submersible type RPAs are usually made in the form of stirrers placed in a container with the processed medium. They are sometimes used to increase mixing efficiency by installing them in addition to existing agitators of other types (e.g., anchor agitators). Submersible RPAs are serially produced by the domestic industry under the name of hydrodynamic apparatuses of rotor type, as well as a number of foreign firms. Despite the constructive simplicity, submersible RPAs do not provide sufficiently homogeneous processing of the entire mass of the product. Flow-type RPAs are the most widespread. Their working bodies are mounted in a small body having branches for inlet and outlet of the processed medium. In the majority of designs the processed medium enters the inner zone of the device through the axial branch pipe and moves in it from the center to the periphery. There are known designs of PPAs, in which the processed medium moves in the opposite direction, moving from the periphery to the center. At such movement the degree of flow turbulization increases, at the same time hydraulic resistance of the device, power consumption” and heating of the treated medium increase. Separate modifications of PPAs can have working chambers with different flow direction.
According to the number of working chambers PPAs can be single-chamber and multi-chamber. Single-chamber units have two disks with concentric rows of teeth or cylinders with slots. One or both disks rotate. Multi-chamber apparatuses have more than two disks with teeth or slotted cylinders, resulting in two or more zones of active media treatment. In addition to the main working bodies (slotted cylinders, disks), RPAs can have additional working bodies designed to increase the efficiency of their work. Often as additional elements, knife blades installed on the rotor, stator or housing are used.

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