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Powder production operations and equipment used

  • Powder production operations and equipment used
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Powder production operations and equipment used

The technological scheme of powder production includes the following operations: grinding, sieving, mixing (in the manufacture of complex powders), dosing (filling) and packaging. The need to perform certain technological operations depends on the prescription, medical purpose and type of starting preparations. If starting materials (medicinal and auxiliary substances) do not meet the required fractional composition specified in the regulation, they are milled. Grinding is understood as a mechanical process of dividing pieces of solid substances into smaller pieces or turning them into powder, resulting in a significant increase in the surface area of the processed material, which allows to significantly accelerate the dissolution of drugs. The objectives of grinding are as follows: to provide a rapid therapeutic effect by reducing the particle size and increasing the amount of substance; to obtain a uniform powder mixture; to ensure the accuracy of dosing when dividing the mass of powder into individual doses; to obtain a semi-finished product used by the company for the manufacture of solutions, extracts, tablets. The main purpose of the grinding stage is to achieve the therapeutic effect more quickly and completely by reducing the particle size and increasing the number of particles. Grinding is necessary not only to achieve greater therapeutic effect, but also for more accurate dosing: when grinding the size of particles of drugs equalizes, after chel-o they are well mixed and do not stratify during dosing. It is known that with decreasing particle size sharply increases the surface energy of the milled drug substance. At fine grinding of drug substances are better dissolved, faster and more fully participate in chemical reactions. Grinding can significantly affect the therapeutic activity of drugs due to changes in the processes of their absorption. This occurs when changing the solubility of the drug, the rate of which is directly proportional to the surface area and inversely proportional to the size of the particles of the substance, ie, the speed and completeness of absorption of the drug, its concentration and residence time in the body depends largely on the size of particles.

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  • Information updated : 09 / 07 / 2024
  • In stock
  • Manufacturer : 1 year for Powder production operations and equipment used

Model: Powder production operations and equipment used

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Grinding is carried out according to two basic schemes – open and closed cycles. If grinding is carried out according to the first scheme, the material passes through the mill only once. When working in a closed cycle, the main part of the material passes through the mill repeatedly, i.e. the material with particle sizes larger than allowed is returned for regrinding. Closed-cycle crushing allows for a significant increase in the productivity of the machine and a more uniform particle size of the material. Pre-crushing is used for raw materials that come to pharmaceutical production in large or long pieces. The point of pre-crushing is to obtain the material in a form that would be suitable for further grinding if necessary. Roots and bark of plants need pre-shredding. Final pulverization (powdering) of varying degrees of fineness is achieved with pulverizers of various designs. Machines for grinding (crushing and milling) are divided into crushers and mills. In technology, mills are called machines for fine and ultrafine grinding, crushers – machines for coarse, medium and fine grinding. However, this division is very conventional. For coarse crushing apply jaw and cone crushers, in which the material with a lump size of 1500 mm or less is crushed under the action of crushing and splitting forces to pieces of 300-100 mm. After coarse crushing, the material is subjected, if necessary, to crushing in medium and fine crushers, in which crushing is carried out from approximately 100 mm to 10-12 mm. For medium and fine crushing, roller and impact centrifugal mills are used. For fine crushing of lumps from 10-12 mm to particles of 2-0,0075 mm, drum and ring mills are used. In them the material is crushed under the simultaneous action of crushing, impact and abrasive forces. For ultrafine grinding, vibrating, jet and colloidal mills are used, in which material particles are ground from about 10-0.1 mm to 75×10-5 – 1×10-4 mm.

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Technical specifications

For example, when administering the same doses of sulfadimezine, micronized and obtained in factory production without additional grinding, it was found that in the first case in the blood plasma of people the content of the drug substance is 40% higher, the maximum concentration is reached 2 hours earlier, and the total amount of absorbed substance by 20% more than in the second case. When the particle size of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is reduced by 30 times, its analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect is increased by 2 times. Reducing the size of griseofulvin particles from 10 microns to 2.6 microns allows reducing the total dose of the drug by 50% (from 1 to 0.5 g), while maintaining a constant concentration of the drug in the blood. The highest concentration of phenacetin in the blood is observed when using the drug with a particle size of 75 microns, and when using the same substance with a particle size of 250 microns, its content in the blood markedly decreases. Enhancement of therapeutic effect when reducing the particle size of drugs can be observed in any dosage form – suspensions, ointments and others, so when grinding is important to follow the technological rules and techniques to achieve the optimal particle size. However, in some cases, excessive grinding can lead to a decrease in the pharmacotherapeutic activity of drugs. This is largely due to an increase in hydrolytic processes or a decrease in their stability in the presence of digestive juices with an increase in the contact surface of the drug substance with biological fluids. For example, the activity of drugs such as penicillin and erythromycin decreases sharply with increasing dispersibility. In the process of dispersion also occurs a decrease in free surface energy due to adsorption of moisture and gases from the air. In this case, the powder mixture becomes loose, sometimes damp, particles stick together, forming larger aggregates, and substances are adsorbed on the walls of the apparatus.

Additional information

In addition, increasing the degree of dispersibility increases the likelihood of side effects of drugs. To reduce side effects, substances are prescribed in dosage forms in which they are dispersed in the form of coarse particles or crystals. If the GF does not specify the degree of grinding of specific powders, the finest powders should be prepared. Grinding of the drug is used to achieve homogeneity of mixing, to eliminate large aggregates in clumping and adhesive materials, to increase technological and biological effects. Grinding of powders leads to an increase in the strength and number of contacts between particles and results in the formation of strong conglomerates. Depending on the particle size of the starting material, a distinction is made between crushing (grinding of large pieces of material) and milling (powdering – grinding of small particles). One of the tasks of the crushing process is to achieve an optimal particle size, taking into account: properties of the initial substances and their structure; application of crushing rules and technological methods; crushing time (set experimentally). Crushing produces particles of different sizes and shapes. In the process of splitting more homogeneous in size and shape particles are formed, although the shape, as in crushing, is not constant. The size and shape of particles in breaking are about the same as in splitting. Cutting and sawing result in the division of the body into particles of predetermined size and shape. Grinding produces a fine powdery product. Depending on the physical and mechanical properties of the starting materials, the following grinding methods are used: hard and brittle material – crushing, impact; hard and ductile material – crushing, sawing; brittle, medium hardness – impact, splitting and abrasion; ductile, medium hardness – abrasion or abrasion and impact, sawing.

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