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Ozokerite contains sulfur and resins and is used as a sealant. Ceresin is obtained from ozokerite by additional purification. This is an amorphous colorless brittle mass with a melting point of 68–72 ° С. Ceresin resembles beeswax in properties and is used as a sealant. Artificial petrolatum is an alloy of paraffin, ozokerite and ceresin in various proportions. The highest quality is artificial petroleum jelly with ceresin. Polyethylene or polypropylene gels are alloys of low molecular weight polyethylene or polypropylene with mineral oils. They are quite indifferent and compatible with a number of drugs. These gels, like petroleum jelly, can be used for surface ointments. Refined Naftalan oil is a thick, syrupy, black liquid with greenish fluorescence and a specific odor. It mixes well with fatty oils and glycerin and has a local anesthetic and antimicrobial effect. To obtain an ointment base, naphthalan oil is condensed with paraffin or petroleum jelly.
Silicone bases are high molecular weight organosilicon compounds. They are used as an integral component of complex ointment bases. They form homogeneous alloys with petroleum jelly or anhydrous lanolin and mix well with fatty and mineral oils. Silicone bases are obtained in two ways: by fusing the silicone fluid with other hydrophobic components and thickening the silicone fluid with aerosil. Esilon-4 and esilon-5 organosilicon liquids, which have the best compatibility with medicinal substances and other base components, have received the greatest use. In appearance, these are colorless, transparent, oily, odorless and tasteless liquids. Their advantage is high stability, chemical indifference and heat resistance. In addition, they do not violate the physiological functions of the skin, do not have an irritating effect, disrupt gas exchange little and do not rancid.
Esilons are mixed with ether, chloroform, liquid paraffin and do not mix with water and glycerin. The disadvantages of esilons include the slow release of drugs, so they can only be used for ointments with surface effects.
They also cause damage to the conjunctiva of the eye, therefore, can not be used in eye ointments. Thus, these substances are close in their physical and chemical properties to hydrocarbon bases, and in terms of speed and depth of absorption of medicinal substances - to fatty bases.
The consistency of hydrogenated fats depending on the conditions of hydrogenation can be different - from semi-solid to solid. Possessing the positive qualities of animal fats, they are more stable, mix better with water, but are less absorbed.
Waxes are esters of fatty acids and higher monohydric alcohols. Waxes are chemically inert, and many of them mix well with water. Waxes are well fused with fats and carbohydrates and serve to seal ointments and increase their viscosity. Waxes include anhydrous lanolin and beeswax. Anhydrous lanolin is an animal wax obtained by washing the wool of a sheep. It is a thick, viscous brownish-yellow mass with a peculiar smell and differs from other waxes in the high content of sterols (in particular, cholesterol). Lanolin melts at a temperature of 36–42 ° C, is well absorbed into the skin and has a softening effect. The composition of lanolin is very complex and has not yet been fully studied. Basically, it is a mixture of esters of high molecular weight alcohols (cholesterol, isocholesterol, etc.) with higher fatty acids (myristic, palmitic, cerotinic, etc.) and free high molecular weight "alcohols. By properties, lanolin is close to human skin fat. In chemical terms, it is quite inert, neutral and stable during storage. The most valuable property of lanolin is the ability to emulsify up to 180-200% (of its own weight) of water, up to 140% glycerol and about 40% ethanol (70% concentration) with the formation of emulsions such as water in oil. The addition of a small amount of lanolin to fats and hydrocarbons dramatically increases their ability to mix with water and aqueous solutions. The disadvantages of anhydrous lanolin as the basis are the high viscosity and the difficulty of spreading, which does not allow it to be used in its pure form. Beeswax is produced by smelting emptied bee honeycombs. It is a hard brittle mass of dark yellow color with a characteristic honey smell and a melting point of 62-68 ° C. At a temperature of 35 ° C, it becomes ductile. Beeswax. is a mixture of esters (high molecular weight alcohols and palmitic acid, and also contains cerotinic acid. It has a small emulsifying property and increases the absorption of water-based liquids. White wax is obtained from yellow by bleaching it in sunlight. It is inferior to yellow in quality, so when bleached and partially rancid, it is also more fragile.
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Hydrocarbon bases in appearance and consistency are similar to fats. They are mixtures of solid or solid and liquid saturated hydrocarbons. These bases are characterized by high chemical resistance, stability and compatibility with most medicinal substances, however, they are hardly absorbed by the skin and are difficult to wash off.
The following bases are most widely used: petroleum jelly, paraffin wax, liquid paraffin, ozokerite, ceresin, artificial petroleum jelly, polyethylene or polypropylene gels and refined naphthalan oil. Vaseline is obtained as a result of oil refining. This is a homogeneous viscous stretching mass with a melting point of 37-50 "C. Vaseline is of two types: yellow and white. White petrolatum is obtained from yellow by bleaching it.
By their properties, both species are the same. Vaseline is chemically indifferent; it is stable during storage and during melting to form a clear liquid with a faint odor of paraffin and oil. Vaseline is mixed with fats and fatty vegetable oils (with the exception of castor oil), it slowly does not completely release medicinal substances, therefore it can only be used for ointments with superficial effects. It is almost not absorbed by the skin, does not have an irritating effect and mixes poorly with water, and therefore it is often combined with lanolin. This allows you to increase the absorption of drugs from ointments. The disadvantages of petroleum jelly include a violation of the physiological function of the skin. Many researchers note that the more solid paraffins and ozokerite are included in the composition of petroleum jelly, the worse its quality. Vaseline often causes allergies, it can not be used by people with dermatitis, eczema and sensitive skin. Vaseline is poorly removed from the site of application. If 60% of human skin is smeared with petroleum jelly, then death can occur. For eye ointments, a special grade of vaseline of the highest purification is used. Solid paraffin is also obtained in the processing of oil. It is a white solid, crystalline mass, greasy to the touch with a melting point of 50-57 ° C. Paraffin is chemically resistant, is not saponified by caustic alkalis and does not mix well with water and other substances. Paraffin is used as a sealant for ointment bases. Vaseline oil (liquid paraffin) is a colorless oily liquid that softens ointment bases. Vaseline oil is mixed with fats and vegetable oils (except castor oil) and has all the disadvantages of petroleum jelly.
Ozokerite (mountain wax) is a dark brown wax-like mineral with the smell of oil and a melting point of 50–65 ° C. Chemically, it is a mixture of high molecular weight hydrocarbons.