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In such cases, it is necessary to add substances with a higher adhesion force (starch, gelatin solutions, etc.) and again it is necessary to resort to granulation in order to introduce binders into the tableted mass that increase the plasticity of the drug substances; this manifests a property called adhesion, which causes the particles to adhere to each other.
Disintegration. The tablet should have the necessary disintegration with sufficient mechanical strength. Too high strength of the tablet affects its disintegration and release of the drug - the disintegration time increases, which negatively affects the quality of the tablet. Disintegration depends on a number of reasons: on the amount of binders: tablets should contain such an amount that is necessary to achieve the required strength; from pressing pressure: excessive pressure worsens the disintegration of the tablet; on the quality of disintegrants that contribute to the disintegration of tablets; from the properties of the substances included in the tablet, from their ability to dissolve in water, wet with it, swell; tablets with readily soluble substances will disintegrate more quickly and less loosening substances will be required.
The mass subjected to tableting should have a combination of properties that ensure the fulfillment of the above requirements: dosing accuracy, mechanical strength and disintegration.
In these cases, anti-friction substances are added to the material, which reduce friction between the particles due to giving them a smooth surface. Usually, fine powders possess poor adhesion, which tend to adhere to the surface of the funnel; therefore, it is necessary to artificially increase the particle size to the optimum size by granulating the material.
Exfoliation causes a change in tablet weight. In some cases, delamination can be prevented by installing a small stirrer in the funnel, but a more radical measure is to level the particles by granulating the material. Speaking about the homogeneity of the material, they also mean its uniformity in the shape of the particles. Obviously, particles with different spatial shapes with approximately the same mass will be placed in a matrix slot with different compactness.
This fact will also cause fluctuations in the mass of tablets. Particle alignment is achieved by a granulation process. It should be noted that it is quite difficult to achieve uniformity of the granules, therefore, by varying the ratio of granulate fractions empirically, it is possible to establish the optimal composition that meets the best flowability and high quality tablets at a certain compression pressure.
Mechanical strength. Mechanical strength determines the interlocking of particles. At the beginning of the pressing process, the tableted mass becomes denser, closer approach of the particles occurs, and conditions are created for the manifestation of intermolecular and electrostatic forces.
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The forces of intermolecular interaction are manifested when the particles approach each other at a distance of 10 ″ 6-10 ″ 7 cm. The process of pressing the tableted mass can be divided into three stages. The mechanical strength depends on the pressure during the pressing process and it is important to monitor how the pressure will increase during pressing. In impact tablet machines (eccentric), the pressure rises sharply, as a result of which the surface of the tablet under the impact of punches is very hot (mechanical energy goes into heat) and the substances melt, forming a continuous cementing layer.
In rotary tablet machines, the pressure rises gradually, which gives better results, since it provides a longer effect of pressure on the tablet mass. The longer the exposure, the more completely air will be removed from the tableted mass, which, after depressurization, expanding, can have a destructive effect on the tablets. In addition, the heating of the tablet at the surface is significantly reduced, which eliminates the harmful effects of elevated temperature on the substances that make up the tablet.
The use of high pressure during pressing can adversely affect the quality of tablets and contribute to the wear of tablet machines. High pressure can be compensated by the addition of substances having a large dipole moment and ensuring the adhesion of particles at relatively low pressures.
Water, possessing a sufficient dipole moment, is a "bridge" between these particles. Water will interfere with the binding of particles of insoluble and insoluble drugs.